Ancient History Learning Site => Mesopotamia => Hittites



In a letter to Amenhotep III the Mitannian ruler Tushratta claimed he defeated an invading Hittite army. However, Suppiluliumas applied diplomacy in getting the king of Kizzuwadna back under
Hittite influence, made an arrangement with Tushratta's Hurrian rival Artatama, and complimented Amenhotep IV on his rise to power in Egypt. Then Suppiluliumas invaded Mitannian areas of north Syria, establishing his son in Kumanni and making Aleppo a vassal. This stimulated Amorite rebellions against Egyptian control by Abdi-ashirta and, after his death, by his son, Aziru, who was called to Egypt. Afterwards Aziru made a pact with Ugarit
and joined the Hittite camp


Hittite empire

Provoked by Mitannian attacks, Suppiluliumas made a pact with Ugarit and attacked the Mitannian capital. Tushratta fled and was killed by a plot involving his son Kurtiwaza. Suppiluliumas then devastated north Syria and Apina which was under Egyptian influence then. Suppiluliumas established feudal states, taking some ruling families to his Hittite land, returning them to Syria later. After a military blockade the city of Carchemish was taken,and his son was installed there as King Shar-Kushuk, his another son, Telepinus was made king of Aleppo. When Tutankhamen died in Egypt, his widow wrote to Suppiluliumas asking to marry one of his sons, but the son that was sent was murdered.

Shar-Kushuk marched with the Mitannian prince Kurtiwaza, and overcoming Mitannian and Assyrian resistance. Much of the rule of Suppiluliumas was spent in fighting in the north and west, too. Hittite soldiers coming back from a military campaign on Egypt brought a plague which killed Suppiluliumas and perhaps his
son Arnuwandas II, who reigned for only one year. Mursilis II was busy in responding to rebellions in Arzawa. In the north Mursilis II
registered campaigns in 10 years, and the capital city was moved south to Tarhuntassa. When Shar-Kushuk died of sickness, Carchemish was captured, but finally his son was made king there.

Muwatallis became ruler of the Hittites about 1320 BC and made his son Hattusilis commandant of the armies and governor of the Upper Land. About 1300 BC a big armed confrontation occurred at Kadesh between the empire of Egypt led by Ramses II and the Hittites. Both sides claimed triumph, but the result was a stand-off, which was signed in a pact 16 years later between Ramses II and Hattusilis III, who had superceded Urhi-Teshub after 7 years of internal conflict. Hattusilis III imitate Assyrian King Adad-Nirari I for calling himself Great King and his brother.






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